定義好的目標達成有效管理 │ Rule Maker

By | 11/23/2020

又到了要規劃次年團隊目標和經營計劃的時間。雖然已經開始有不少公司都導入OKR 的做法,但談到整體營運目標,公司都還是習慣用 KPI 來進行管理。
KPI 訂得好可以帶你上天堂,但不好的 KPI 會讓團隊彼此間短視近利而更難合作。

就管理系統而言,把公司的政策轉化成 KPI 來體現組織對政策方針的支持是必要的,只是很多政策不是這麼輕易可以轉化。
去年拜訪了台灣一家專攻高階螢幕生產及加工的公司,業務提的都是該公司合作伙伴間開發的新技術。我稍微抬頭環顧一下 Demo room,果然在其中一角發現掛著公司政策,其中一項就是「創新」。

「創新」就是一種長遠培養的計劃。
例如亞培經過企業轉型後開創了強大的創新文化和引擎,每年的營業額中有 65% 來自於近四年所推出的新產品;必能寶 (PBI) 在 1973 年陷入谷底並展開多角化經營後,1980 年代有一半的營業額都來自於過去三年的新開發產品。
這些成績可以用回顧來評估其成果,但極難用下年度的 KPI 目標來建立。

KPI 的項目太大往往會因為模糊而達不到效果。項目太小又容易造成團隊間的分裂,因為它會讓成員們只專注在自己的工作,而非組織目標。
就長期目標而言,組織要把創新根植入組織工作中,卻定義一個短期 KPI 要新產品成長 X% 銷售額,目標達成率太差時絕對是產品經理、研發和業務三者間分裂的開始。
有人會說,既然 KPI 是這樣定的,只要兩者去思考如何合作來達成這個目標就好。但實際上合作之難,幹過導領工作的人都曉得:之所以需要夠好的領導者,就是因為要讓大家合作無間是很困難的事。

KPI 的訂定可以分成幾個層次和方法,讓主管比較容易做到有效率的管理並達成團隊合作的期望。
1. 細節的 KPI 項目由成員自行管理
我見過不少團隊主管拿成員 KPI 當部門目標。
就邏輯而言當然沒錯,團隊成員都有效工作達成目標時,部門應該要有正確的產出才對。但這種管理方法會太過瑣碎,使主管無暇思考部門更優化或更進一步的價值,尤其是團隊功能多元化時更為嚴重。

2. 用 Top-down 的方式來思考
對更大的目標而言,你的團隊應該產出的支援價值才是 KPI 項目,成員該有的相關產出讓團隊達成支援效果則是成員個人的項目。
該關注什麼項目與自己所在的位置有關。

我曾經與一位工程部主管討論過他帶領部門的產出,希望能從過去四年不變的 KPI 中尋找更新的價值。他頗沒與趣地告訴我:這個團隊最大的價值就是負責產品技轉到相關單位的動作。
我們的談話就如此簡短地結束了。
我回去後重新檢視工程部的 KPI,其中超 50% 是產品技轉的達成率,其它才是次要的支援性工作。

若依工程主管所言,他運作的是一個以技術轉移為核心引擎的團隊,這樣的 KPI 同時犯了 1 和 2 的錯誤。


當新產品的技轉工作開始進行,依 PM 規劃的時程完成相關作業應該是工程師的責任。就組織而言,工程協助 RD 把新產品轉移到工廠,讓工廠可以 「有效率」又「正確」生產才是能支援組織目標的價值。
因此工程部主管的定期報告總是一大篇記載零碎各種產品技轉的狀況和統計表,當 KPI 改為正確性後,他只要在乎是否有錯誤回報及技轉延遲造成來不及生產的回報,就可以同時有效管理到團隊成員的達成率及有效性。
其它時間,他則可以更專注在早期導入生產技術,讓新產品一進入生產就能十分有效率地被製造出來,提高了整個部門的價值。

3. KPI 目標最好是流程的尾端
有位品保主管為了強化供應商端的交貨品質,把年度工作重點定為 SQE 推動的材料免驗率。這個免驗是有所依據的,經過一定次數的驗證材料沒問題後就可以推入免驗。
為了這個目標的達成,他定義了兩個 KPI 項目,其一是 SQE 推動的免驗率,另外一個則是用來支持免驗率的成效 ── IQC 人力降低。

簡單表示供應商製造材料到入廠內使用的流程

這個邏輯基本正確, SQE 推動有成時,材料無需檢驗即可使用,因此 IQC 的人力需求自然可以下降。
當其中一項成果不顯著時,卻造成了 IQC 及 SQE 之間的爭執。IQC 責怪 SQE 對供應商品質提升工作沒有成效,SQE 則反過來責怪 IQC 為了下降人力沒有落實檢驗。
這位品保主管和部屬花了許多力氣在對工作細節進行匯報和統計管理,但團隊之間的對立卻依然無法減輕,同時還得花不少力氣去處理在製造過程中退回的材料。

其實 KPI 的項目主要檢視流程最後的成果即可。
假設前一個人把工作交到你手上後,要經過四個動作產出結果再交給下一個人,你只需要問接手的人是否對自己交過去的東西滿意,而無需對其中的四個動作都定義相關的目標。

品保部門的 KPI 換成線上使用材料的不良率後,品保主管只要管理一個重點數據就可以了解自己團隊的工作狀況,團隊在流程上的合作也能以部門產出的價值主,前後的管理效率就有了大幅度的改善。

4. KPI 是用來讓我們做正確的事而不是用來判定誰好誰壞
就像 360 度評量方法一樣,我們用流程尾端的結果 (別人的視角) 來衡量 KPI 時,不達標不一定是做的人不好,更可能是沒有做對方法、甚至是原本的流程規劃或資源設定就不洽當。
老實說這一點聽起來是在唱高調,畢竟絕大多數的組織都把考績和 KPI 做了一個相當大的連結。

因此衡量 KPI,主管心態更重要的是思考怎麼讓事情被做對,而不是先進行團隊成員的汰弱補強;越是高階的主管越是如此。
相對帶領基層工作人員的主管,在 KPI 項目中加入個人化的專案是種不錯的平衡方法,讓成員除了制式化的衡量項目外,能依個人的技能專長或興趣提供更多有利於組織的價值。

對職涯選擇或發展感到困擾或對提升主管技能有興趣的朋友,歡迎與我做進一步連絡。

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